Filipa Calheiros Ferraz wrote an article for the Observatório Almedina entitled: "The requirements for "Horizontal" Cooperation Agreements between Public Entities set forth in Article 5A(5) of the Public Procurement Code". The article deals with the interpretation and scope of the requirements for horizontal cooperation agreements established under the Public Procurement Code.

"In our opinion, the agreement cannot allow the subcontracting of private parties, whether or not they are to replace the awarding entities that were the original parties to the agreement, since it is impossible to ensure there are no other interests at stake. We believe, however, that any subcontractor who happens to be a public entity should be admitted, when such subcontractor is able to comply with the other conditions for horizontal cooperation."

Read the article here.